Since its independence, thanks to the rational and controlled use of its natural resources and the diversification of its oil and gas pipelines, Azerbaijan has become a major regional energy hub, an essential contributor to most of the large-scale projects in the region, and a new commercial and security partner for Europe. It is committed to an ambitious strategy of diversified economic development. Azerbaijan, which has the world's most ancient oil industry, has left behind its relative anonymity of the Soviet era and become an independent player on the stage of Eurasian energy. As a researcher at the Baku State University, the author, Fazil Zeynalov, provides a particularly pertinent geostrategic study of Azerbaijan and its energy policies. He explains the changing history of Azerbaijan's energy reserves since the Middle Ages and presents the importance and geopolitical prospects of the Caspian Sea. This detailed and informative publication is recommended reading for teachers, researchers and students, as well as members of the wider public wishing to understand the international issues associated with the Caspian, and more broadly with the region that links Asia and Europe.
The present work is devoted to optimization based upon physical and mathematical modelling of calcium treatment processes for low-alloy steel grades in Ladle, using Steel Refining Unit (SRU). The widely applicable method of calcium injection into ladle on Steel Refining Unit by means of Flux-Cored Wire (FCW) or the method of silicocalcium blowing-in often requires significant flow rate of calcium containing alloys to ensure the necessary concentration of calcium and sulfur in the finished steel. Methods of mathematical modelling are widely applied for the purpose of improvement of calcium alloys injection modes into ladle. However, mainly heating processes in the ladle are taken into consideration in this connection; meanwhile hydrodynamic processes are accounted only partially. At the same time, interfacial reactions of the metal with steam bubbles play a significant role in the processes of interaction between calcium and supernatant liquid, whereby sulfur and oxygen that are dissolved in steel take part in the reactions described above. Nevertheless, only single quantitative estimates are known for kinetics of mass exchanging processes in the ladle. Finally, efficiency of calcium treatment depends on chemical composition of steel. Probability of low-melting calcium aluminates formation, which ensure improvement of pouring capacity, depends not only on the frequently used proportion of [Ca] to [Al], but also on conditions of steel oxidation and sulfur content in the steel. Therefore, optimization of injection modes for calcium containing alloys based on the thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of steel deoxidation and modification conditions, as well as on the mathematical modelling of mass exchanging processes, represents a crucial scientific and technical challenge of nowadays.
This essay bridges the two wings of Popper's thinking, political philosophy and philosophy of science, thus steering a middle course between the two major receptions. It offers the double advantage of providing a faithful presentation of Popper's theses on the one hand, and of highlighting the links between the "falsificationist" theory of science and the liberal political thinking which together form the only way to an understanding of Popper's attack on "historicism", particularly Marxism, in his "Poverty of Historicism". Popper's political philosophy is extremely aggressive, especially in "The Open Society and its Enemies", but makes an effort to stress the point of the controversies it has raised, to present the objections from the Anglo-Saxon camp itself, which are all but unknown to continental philosophy. In this way he facilitates an inquiry into the possibility of a critical application of Popper's theses on history.
Dall'incontro a sorpresa con un compagno di giochi della sua infanzia, perso di vista per interi decenni, Eugénie Poret prende lo spunto per interrogarsi sui segnali che riceviamo dalla vita, offrendoci un modo originale per affrontare e interpretare l'inconcepibile realtà delle persone ammalate allo stadio terminale. Io resto è la prima tavola di un polittico che racconta anche il dopo, quando l'assenza trasforma il dolore in forza vitale. Un testo scritto come un lungo poema filosofico impressionista, dove sofferenza gioco e speranza s'intrecciano nella grazia di un rapporto umano illuminato con tocchi delicati, personali e filosofici.
Le projet d'harmonisation du droit des affaires dans la caraïbe est né de la déclaration issue de la conférence de Pointe-à-Pitre (Guadeloupe) du 15 Mai 2007 et de l'adoption d'une liste de domaines juridiques prioritaires à la deuxième conférence tenue à Port-au-Prince (Haïti) les 17 et 18 juin 2008 constatant que les États de la caraïbe appartiennent à différentes familles juridiques de Common law et romano-germanique, un des obstacles aux échanges économiques intra-caribéens. D'où la nécessité d'élaborer des règles juridiques uniformes dont la finalité est de favoriser des échanges économiques et d'attirer des investissements dans la région caribéenne. S'inspirant de l'harmonisation du droit des affaires en Afrique, l'harmonisation caribéenne se heurte à des obstacles plus importants : traditions juridiques et judiciaires différentes, défaut de sources documentaires, ignorance des différents systèmes juridiques... .Mais ces obstacles ne sont point insurmontables comme le montre la publication récente de quelques projets de textes uniformes en droits de l'arbitrage, des contrats commerciaux, des sociétés commerciaux internationaux, des sociétés commerciales, et en droit international privé.