This study contains 71 datasheets on plants and plant preparations which have been evaluated by the Council of Europe's Committee of Experts on Cosmetic Products. An assessment of the safety of these plants and plant preparations is also included.
Cette étude contient 71 fiches de données relatives aux plantes et préparations à base de plantes utilisées comme ingrédients dans les produits cosmétiques qui ont été évaluées par le Comité d'experts sur les produits cosmétiques du Conseil de l'Europe. La sécurité d'emploi de ces plantes et préparations à base de plantes est incluse dans les fiches de données.
"Respect for human rights lies at the heart of what it means to be European" (Martyn Bond)
The right to life, prohibition of torture, freedom of thought, conscience and religion, freedom of expression, the right to marriage... Did you know that these rights and many others are protected by the European Convention on Human Rights?
The author of this book illustrates each of these rights in a simple and clear way, using specific examples. He also sets the action of the European Court of Human Rights in the wider context ofCouncil of Europe activities pursuing the same ideals.
Martyn Bond is a journalist who has reported from London, Brussels, Strasbourg and Berlin. He is also a former European civil servant. Over the past half century he has witnessed and reported on many of the events that have shocked or amused, delighted or disturbed European readers, listeners and viewers. He firmly believes that respect for human rights lies at the heart of what it means to be European.
How can the study of religions and non-religious world views contribute to intercultural education in schools in Europe? An important recommendation from the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe (Recommendation CM/Rec(2008)12 on the dimension of religions and non-religious convictions within intercultural education) aimed to explain the nature and objectives of this form of education.
Signposts goes much further by providing advice to policy makers, schools (including teachers, senior managers and governors) and teacher trainers on tackling issues arising from the recommendation. Taking careful account of feedback from education officials, teachers and teacher trainers in Council of Europe member states, Signposts gives advice, for example, on clarifying the terms used in this form of education; developing competences for teaching and learning, and working with different didactical approaches; creating "safe space" for moderated student-to-student dialogue in the classroom; helping students to analyse media representations of religions; discussing non-religious world views alongside religious perspectives; handling human rights issues relating to religion and belief; and linking schools (including schools of different types) to one another and to wider communities and organisations. Signposts is not a curriculum or a policy statement. It aims to give policy makers, schools and teacher trainers in the Council of Europe member states, as well as others who wish to use it, the tools to work through the issues arising from interpretation of the recommendation to meet the needs of individual countries.
Signposts results from the work of an international panel of experts convened jointly by the Council of Europe and the European Wergeland Centre, and is written on the group's behalf by Professor Robert Jackson.
Recommendation CM/Rec(2014)7 on the protection of whistleblowers encourages member states of the Council of Europe to have in place a normative, institutional and judicial framework that protects the rights and interests of individuals who, in the context of their workbased relationship, report or disclose information on threats or harm to the public interest.
A series of principles is set out in the appendix to the recommendation to guide member states when introducing legislation and regulations or, where required, making amendments.
Is journalism under threat? Censorship, political pressure, intimidation, job insecurity and attacks on the protection of journalists' sources - how can these threats be tackled?Journalism at Risk is a new book from the Council of Europe, in which ten experts from different backgrounds examine the role of journalism in democratic societies.
Is journalism under threat? The image of journalists, as helmeted war correspondents protected by bullet-proof vests and armed only with cameras and microphones, springs to mind. Physical threats are only the most visible dangers, however. Journalists and journalism itself are facing other threats such as censorship, political and economic pressure, intimidation, job insecurity and attacks on the protection of journalists' sources. Social media and digital photography mean that anyone can now publish information, which is also upsetting the ethics of journalism.
How can these threats be tackled? What is the role of the Council of Europe, the European Court of Human Rights and national governments in protecting journalists and freedom of expression?
In this book, 10 experts from different backgrounds analyse the situation from various angles. At a time when high-quality, independent journalism is more necessary than ever - and yet when the profession is facing many different challenges - they explore the issues surrounding the role of journalism in democratic societies.
As a reflection of European identity and diversity, the landscape is our living natural and cultural heritage...
Within the meaning of the European Landscape Convention the close links between the notion of landscape and human rights, democracy and sustainable development deserve to be highlighted.
Recommendation CM/Rec(2017)7 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe to member states on the contribution of the European Landscape Convention to the exercise of human rights and democracy with a view to sustainable development, emphasises the need to "consider the importance that quality and diversity of landscapes has for the minds and bodies of human beings, as well as for societies".
The forthcoming opening of the convention to non-European states provides a unique opportunity to reaffirm the universal nature of human rights. The implementation of the convention represents an effective contribution by the Council of Europe to realisation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, as adopted by the United Nations General Assembly.
The EU-CoE youth partnership stems from the close relations that the Council of Europe and the European Commission have developed in the youth field over the years since 1998. The overall goal is to foster synergies between the youth-oriented activities of the two institutions. The specific themes are participation/citizenship, social inclusion, recognition and quality of youth work.
What is youth policy, and what major elements should a national youth policy strategy include? How can young people be consulted and otherwise involved in developing youth policy? How do institutions such as the European Union, the Council of Europe and the United Nations address youth policy, and how can this work be concretely linked to the efforts of a national government to develop a youth policy agenda? How is youth policy organised in specific countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region?
These are some of the essential questions addressed in this publication. The Youth policy manual should be considered a source work, a tool and a helpful guide both for policy makers in the youth field and for non-governmental organisations and other stakeholder groups who advocate improved youth policy at the national level.
This manual proposes one possible model for how a national youth policy strategy can be developed. It is a revised version of the Youth policy manual (2009) and takes into account relevant specificities of the MENA region.
There is currently worldwide concern over corruption in education. This concern touches all member states and all levels of education.
There is today general recognition of the adverse effects of unethical behaviour in the field of education at all levels and in all countries. While the main stakeholders agree on the need to combat corruption in education, there are diverging opinions on how to achieve this.
What are the ethical principles on which education policy in Europe today should be based? How can we achieve genuine ethics, transparency and integrity in schools and universities? What approach should be adopted to counter the various forms of corruption that affect the education sector at various levels?
This publication attempts to answer these questions, setting out the 14 ethical principles for education put forward by the Council of Europe Platform on Ethics, Transparency and Integrity in Education (ETINED), along with how they were developed and where they can be applied.
This recommendation applies to youth work in all its diversity. It aims to encourage member States to develop their youth work policy and practice within their sphere of competence and invites them to adopt a range of measures that will strengthen the necessary support for youth work at local, regional, national and European levels.
Youth work is a broad term covering a wide variety of activities of a social, cultural, educational, environmental and/or political nature by, with and for young people, in groups or individually.
Youth work is delivered by paid and volunteer youth workers and is based on non-formal and informal learning processes focused on young people and on voluntary participation.
Youth work is quintessentially a social practice, working with young people and the societies in which they live, facilitating young people's active participation and inclusion in their communities and in decision making.
The general aim of ROMED1 is to improve the quality and effectiveness of the work of school, health, employment and community mediators, with a view to supporting better communication and co-operation between Roma and public institutions (school, health-care providers, employment offices, local authorities, etc.).
The ROMED1 trainer's handbook was developed over five years of implementation of the ROMED1 programme, and is generally intended for trainers who followed a course of training for trainers in the framework of the programme. However, it can also be used by organisations - governmental or non-governmental - as a basis for new or adapted curricula for those working in a mediation context with or within Roma communities. It contains the key information trainers need to give a training course based on the ROMED1 methodology and on the human rights-based approach. The content of the materials should be adapted to the specific context of each country and to the profile of the mediators.
Freedom of expression and defamation: where do we draw the line?
Freedom of expression is a fundamental freedom, one of the cornerstones of democracy in Europe, enshrined in various key texts, including the European Convention on Human Rights. But the boundaries between freedom to criticise and damaging a person's honour or reputation are not always very clear. By defining public insults and defamation, the law can set limits on freedom of expression, which is neither absolute nor boundless. But how far can it go?
This study examines the details of the European Court of Human Right's case law on defamation. It explores a range of substantive and procedural issues that the Court has considered, and clarifies the concept of defamation, positioning it in relation to freedom of expression and public debate. It explains how overly protective defamation laws can have a chilling effect on freedom of expression and public debate, and discusses the proportionality of defamation laws and their application.
Elections are a pre-condition for democratic governance since it is through them that the citizens of a country choose freely, and on the basis of the law, the persons that can legitimately govern in their name and in their interest.
The right to free elections, as enshrined in the Article 3 of the Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, is a "fundamental principle in a truly democratic political regime". It comprises a series of safeguards and procedures that ensure respect for active and passive electoral rights and the conduct of genuine free and fair elections. Civil society has a distinct role to play since it observes the electoral process and contributes to the development of national electoral procedures through advice and recommendations.
The Council of Europe handbook Reporting on elections aims to help observers become more efficient and to produce more effective reports, specifically focusing on the reporting of core team members. At the same time, it also covers the reporting of long- and short-term observers. It deals mainly with final election reports and reports/statements on preliminary findings, while also providing insight into interim reports and ideas for ad hoc reports and press releases, in addition to tips on how to follow up on recommendations.
Substantive issues, methodological lessons, support measures and youth policy standards: a reflection on the "third seven" Council of Europe international reviews of national youth policy
The Council of Europe's 21 international reviews of national youth policy have, over 20 years, produced a significant body of knowledge and a respected, innovative methodology. They have considerably enhanced the understanding and the development of "youth policy" throughout Europe.
Following the first seven international reviews, a synthesis report was produced that endeavoured to construct a framework for understanding youth policy. A similar synthesis exercise took place after a further seven international reviews, reflecting both on the evolving process of carrying out the reviews and on new themes and issues for youth policy that had not emerged within the initial framework.
This book, the third concerned with supporting young people in Europe, is a synthesis of the last seven international reviews, coupled with an overview of the learning that has accrued from all 21 international reviews. It draws together some of the conclusions and challenges that have emerged over two decades and considers some lessons for the future, not least alternative models of engagement in the youth field between the Council of Europe and its member states.
How do we involve less advantaged young people in mobility projects, and how do we engineer and implement these projects to make participation a realistic option for all?
This book presents the state of the art of learning mobility in the very complex and heterogeneous European youth field, bringing together contributions from all over the continent. The authors present empirical research findings that explore and analyse the experience of participants from a range of different backgrounds, in varied learning mobility settings - exchanges, volunteer service, camps - and in diverse regions of Europe.
This volume addresses two interrelated questions: first, how learning mobility can be used as a tool for inclusion, providing disadvantaged and excluded people with opportunities and assets; and second, how focusing on inclusion can become a more intrinsic part of learning mobility projects and initiatives. The book is divided into three parts, spanning the range of stages and dimensions of the learning mobility process: access, reach and target; processes, strategies and practices; and effects, outcomes and follow-ups.
Relevant for those with experience but also directed to newcomers to the field, this work provides an explanation of the main concepts and issues in the light of current developments in youth policy and practice in Europe.
Bullying is one of the most difficult areas of violence against children to eliminate, especially with the ubiquitous role that internet and mobile technology plays in their life today and the capacity this gives for bullying to continue night and day.
Bullying seems to be part of human nature and has been with us since ancient times, but that is no reason to accept it fatalistically as "natural" and, for children, part of growing up. Only in the 1970s was research first undertaken to explore the phenomenon and to attempt to understand why it takes place and its impact on individuals and societies. With the emergence of the internet and social media, bullying has taken a more sinister turn, becoming more relentless, constant and inescapable for victims.
This book aims to explain to both experts and the interested layperson what is known about bullying, its causes, effects and, crucially, how it can be reduced, in particular by fostering social and emotional skills in young people. Authors from more than a dozen countries have contributed to this publication, presenting widely differing perspectives, practice and insights on how they are tackling or think we should be tackling modern societal issues such as bullying and hate speech. While some chapters focus more specifically on case studies and what the research tells us, others look at issues related to bringing up and educating children for the world we live in. This publication also provides information on the work of the ENABLE network and aims to introduce readers to the psychologists and researchers, teachers, parents and social media innovators that have helped to shape it.
The second edition of Right to Remember incorporates some small revisions into the original publication. Since it was first published (in 2014), Right to Remember has been widely used, by both Roma and non-Roma youth groups. The response has been almost overwhelmingly positive, but inevitably there have been some suggestions for clarification, amendments, or inclusion of additional material. Certain groups or individuals working on the Roma Genocide have also been kind enough to respond to a call for feedback on the publication.
Right to Remember is a self-contained educational resource for all those wishing to promote a deeper awareness of the Roma Genocide and combat discrimination. The handbook is based on the principles of human rights education, and places remembrance as an aspect of learning about, through and for human rights.
Strengthening the identity of Roma young people is a priority for the Roma Youth Action Plan of the Council of Europe. This implies the creation of an environment where they can grow up free from discrimination and confident about their identity and future perspectives, while appreciating their history and their plural cultural backgrounds and affiliations.
The Roma Genocide carried out before and during the Second World War has deeply impacted on Roma communities across Europe and plays a central role in understanding the prevailing antigypsyim and discrimination against Roma. Learning about the Genocide is very important for all young people. For Roma young people it is also a way to understand what was perpetrated against their communities, and to help them to com to terms with their identity and situation today.
Involving young people, including Roma youth, in researching, discussing and discovering the meanings of the Roma Genocide is a way to involve them as agents and actors in their own understanding of human rights and of history.
Right to Remember includes educational activities, as well as ideas for commemoration events, and information about the Genocide and its relevance to the situation of the Roma people today. It has been designed primarily for youth workers in non-formal settings, but it will be useful for anyone working in education, including in schools.
Freedom of expression is one of the basic conditions for the progress of society. Without safeguards for the safety of journalists there can be no free media.
Journalists are under threat in Europe. Different forms of violence against journalists have increased significantly over the last decade: from physical attacks, to intimidation and harassment, targeted surveillance and cyberbullying, we now see a range of tactics deployed to silence critical voices and free speech. Together with impunity for the perpetrators of unwarranted interference on journalists, these are among the most serious challenges facing media freedom today. Self-censorship is hardly surprising in such circumstances.
This study, conducted among almost 1 000 journalists and other news providers in the 47 Council of Europe member states and Belarus, sheds new light on how these issues impact on journalists' behaviour. The results of the study provide quantitative evidence on such unwarranted interference, fear and how this relates to consequent self-censorship. These striking results confirm the urgent need for member states to fully implement Recommendation CM/Rec(2016)4 on the protection of journalism and safety of journalists and other media actors, and represent an essential and reliable tool for strategic planning in this field to guarantee freedom of expression.
Civil society organisations - watchdogs for free and fair elections!
This handbook, drafted in collaboration with civil society organisations from the countries of the Eastern Partnership, is a response to the recommendation set out in the 2015 report by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe entitled State of democracy, human rights and the rule of law in Europe. Its purpose is to improve the quality of domestic observation of electoral processes in the member states and to serve as a reference for domestic observers, primarily for core team members.
At the same time, it may serve as a training tool for long-term and short-term observers and other electoral stakeholders who wish to familiarise themselves with international election standards (government officials, electoral administration, party representatives, judges, lawyers).
The Council of Europe is convinced that this handbook will further promote the uniform application of Europe's electoral heritage and of other international standards in its member states and beyond.
Understanding and experiencing the diversity of languages and cultures is both an aim of and a resource for quality education
Plurilingual and intercultural education is a response to the needs and requirements of quality education, covering the acquisition of competences, knowledge and attitudes, diversity of learning experiences, and construction of individual and collective cultural identities. Its aim is to make teaching more effective and increase the contribution it makes both to school success for the most vulnerable learners and to social cohesion.
This guide is intended to facilitate improved implementation of the values and principles of plurilingual and intercultural education in the teaching of all languages - foreign, regional or minority, classical and language(s) of schooling.
A quality education must be free of corruption!
Further to the clear political commitment made by the European Ministers of Education at the Helsinki Ministerial Conference in April 2013, the Council of Europe launched its Platform on Ethics, Transparency and Integrity in Education, ETINED. ETINED is a network of specialists representing the 50 States Parties to the European Cultural Convention, which carries out initiatives at European, regional and national level to take effective action against corruption and encourage all the relevant stakeholders in society to commit fully to a set of fundamental ethical principles for public and professional life.
This publication reflects the discussions held at the 7th Session of the Prague Forum and provides strong evidence of the drive in Europe to promote high quality, corruption-free education based on common ethical principles. Offering many national examples and good practice in this area, it also raises several issues relating to the ethical behaviour of all education players, academic integrity and plagiarism, and the problem of the recognition of qualifications obtained by distance and online learning. It also covers how ETINED came into being, how it has developed and how it is applied in various countries.
What is it like to be young in a Europe faced with conflict and austerity?
Volume 3 of the series Perspectives on youth focuses on "healthy Europe", not just in the narrow sense, but in the broader sense of what it is like to be young in a Europe faced with conflict and austerity, and what it feels like to be young as transitions become ever more challenging. The assumption when planning this issue was that health in this broader sense remains a controversial area within youth policy, where the points of departure of policy makers, on the one hand, and young people themselves on the other are often dramatically different; in fact, young people tend to interpret the dominating discourse as limiting, patronising, maybe even offensive.
The question of health brings the old tensions between protection and participation as well as agency and structure to the forefront. Not all questions are addressed in detail but many are touched upon. It is, intentionally, an eclectic mix of contributions, to provide a diversity of argumentation and to promote reflection and debate. As has been the intention of Perspectives on youth throughout, we have sought to solicit and elicit the views of academics, policy makers and practitioners, presenting theoretical, empirical and hypothetical assertions and analysis.
Perspectives on youth is published by the partnership between the European Union and the Council of Europe in the field of youth in co-operation with, and with support from, four countries: Belgium, Finland, France and Germany. Its purpose is to keep the dialogue on key problems of child and youth policies on a solid foundation in terms of content, expertise and politics. The series aims to act as a forum for information, discussion, reflection and dialogue on European developments and trends in the field of youth policy, youth research and youth work while promoting a policy and youth work practice that is based on knowledge and participatory principles.
The editorial team of this volume is composed of 12 members representing the supporting countries, the Pool of European Youth Researchers (PEYR), the co-ordinator of the youth policy reviews of the Council of Europe, the EU-Council of Europe youth partnership and the co-ordinator of the editorial team.
What positive impact has the European Convention on Human Rights had upon states parties to the Convention?
The examples presented in this publication show that the effects of the Convention and its case law extend to all areas of life. They include, but are not limited to, individuals' access to justice, the prohibition of discrimination, property rights, family law issues such as custody rights, the prevention and punishment of acts of torture, the protection of victims of domestic violence, the privacy of individuals in their correspondence and sexual relations, and the protection of religious freedoms and freedoms of expression and association.
This publication contains selected examples from all 47 states parties to the Convention that illustrate how the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms has been strengthened at the domestic level thanks to the Convention and the Strasbourg Court's case law.
Interest in administrative justice and the judicial review of administrative acts has been growing in many countries recently, including many Council of Europe member states. At the core of an accountable and transparent administration is the right to effectively challenge acts and decisions that affect civil rights and obligations, and the daily life of individuals. Effective means of redress against administrative decisions require a functioning system of administrative justice that provides fair trial guarantees. An administrative process should be public, held within a reasonable time, undertaken by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law and result in an enforceable judgment that is pronounced publicly.
This casebook, the first of its kind, provides a systematic and accessible overview of what administrative justice means for Council of Europe member states. The case law of the European Court of Human Rights on the right to a fair trial is described and analysed as it relates to administrative proceedings.
It is the hope of the Council of Europe and the Folke Bernadotte Academy that this casebook will help practitioners in the field of administrative justice to ensure fair trial standards and their principles applicable under Article 6, paragraph 1, of the European Convention on Human Rights are respected and, by doing so, further strengthen the rule of law and the accountability and transparency of public administration and administrative justice in the member states of the Council of Europe.
A community of practice of the professionals of the education around the values and the principles of the Council of Europe.
The Council of Europe's Pestalozzi Programme promotes the message of the Organisation and its values - human rights, democracy and the rule of law - in the practice of education (formal, non-formal and informal) and aims to support member states in including these ideals in their education systems. Basing its approach to professional development firmly on social constructivism and social constructionism, it invests in educators who create new practices.
This book represents an example of a transformational enterprise in which several practitioners from different parts of Europe gather in the Pestalozzi Programme community of practice and set out to learn how to become action researchers. While many books focus on how to carry this out, this publication is action research in action. In addition, it features examples of how participants can use online social platforms and affordable web applications in their collaboration and learning practices.